The idea of global citizenship is as old as political thought. It rests on five millennia of unrealised universalism, qualified by four centuries of dominant nationalism. The contemporary age is witness to the articulation of universalism in human rights within the context of national political thought. How the tension between universalism and individualism will play out through this century is the focus of enquiry here. A study of ‘global citizenship’ requires, first, definitional and conceptual clarification. This facilitates an exploration of the philosophical foundations of the concept, including the values underpinning it. As the world changes, so does the socio-psychological dimension of an individual’s modern sense of identity and loyalty. Those evolving values and the social psychology of modern life lay the foundation for strengthened juridical concepts relevant to global citizenship which in turn, ultimately, will bestow it a constitutional status with institutional expression. The structure of this essay reflects the above reasoning, with conclusions derived at the end.